anatoxin n : a bacterial toxin that has been weakened until it is no longer toxic but is strong enough to induce the formation of antibodies and immunity to the specific disease caused by the toxin; "diphtheria toxoid" [syn: toxoid]
Anatoxin-a is a secondary, bicyclic amine alkaloid and cyanotoxin with acute neurotoxicity. The toxin is produced by at least four different genera of cyanobacteria and has been reported in North America, Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia. Symptoms of anatoxin exposure are loss of coordination, muscular fasciculations, convulsions and death by respiratory paralysis. Its mode of action is through the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor where it acts as an analogue of acetylcholine. The molecule is not degraded by cholinesterase thus causes permanent stimulation of muscle cells leading to paralysis. Information on carcinogenicity is not available.
- Wood, S. A., J. P. Rasmussen, P. T. Holland, R. Campbell, and A. L. M. Crowe. 2007. "First Report of the Cyanotoxin Anatoxin-A from Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi (cyanobacteria)" Journal of Phycology 43:356-365.
- National Center for Environmental Assessment. "Toxicological Reviews of Cyanobacterial Toxins: Anatoxin-a" NCEA-C-1743
anatoxin in Turkish: Anatoksin